An analysis of the theoretical basis for psychological counseling

This separates Gestalt therapy from most other therapies. An annotated bibliography of case readings can be found in Simkinp.

Department of Psychological Sciences

Even those who endorse risk management reluctantly agree that a courteous handshake may be unavoidable. His popular reputation as father of psychotherapy was established by his use of the distinct term " psychoanalysis ", tied to an overarching system of theories and methods, and by the effective work of his followers in rewriting history.

Montague postulates that this type of parenting would produce individuals who are able to lead lonely, isolated lives in the crowded urban world, with its materialistic values and its addiction to things.

When parents cannot meet these needs because they need a dependent child or lack sufficient inner resources, the child develops distorted contact boundaries, awareness and lowered self-esteem. Led by Heinz HartmannKris, Rappaport and Lowenstein, the group built upon understandings of the synthetic function of the ego as a mediator in psychic functioning[ jargon ].

Disturbed patients need support from the therapist and at least a minimal amount of faith in their own natural healing capacity before they can explore deeply and experience intensely the "overwhelming pain, hurt, rage and despair" that underlie the psychological processes of disturbed patients Shepherd,pp.

In a study done by Jourardpeople from different cultures were observed in casual conversation. In Gestalt therapy the immediate experience of the patient is actively used. Unlike most other therapies, in Gestalt therapy the process of discovery through experimentation is the end point rather than the feeling or idea or content.

This course incorporates non-verbal communication techniques, intermediate vocabulary, grammatical rules and conversational skills. This does not mean that Gestalt therapists are not in favor of research; in fact, the Gestalt Therapy Institute of Los Angeles has offered grants to subsidize research.

I don't want to cooperate with that. Even though Gestalt therapy discourages interrupting the organismic assimilating process by focusing on cognitive explanatory intellectualizations, Gestalt therapists do work with belief systems. Syntactic and semantic aspects of American Sign Language will be addressed.

Stanley Hall who studied with Wundt, formed a psychology lab at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland, which became internationally influential. Many Gestalt therapists avoid the word resistance because of its pejorative dichotomized connotation, which frames the process as a power battle between therapist and patient rather than as the self-conflict of the patient that needs to be integrated into a harmoniously differentiated self.

Reaching out gently and respectfully to hold the hand of a grieving mother may not have the intended positive effect if the same is done in early stages of therapy with a female survivor of sexual abuse. Behavioral therapy approaches relied on principles of operant conditioningclassical conditioning and social learning theory to bring about therapeutic change in observable symptoms.

Gestalt therapy provides a way of being authentic and meaningfully responsible for oneself.

Theoretical Basis for Counseling; Visit to Rehab House

Analysts can also use reconstruction to estimate what may have happened in the past that created some current issue. Theoretical approaches are an understandably integral part of the therapeutic process.

Massage therapy has been shown to reduce aversion to touch and to decrease anxiety, depression and cortisol levels in women who have been sexually or physically abused Field, et.

We can look to developmental and evolutionary psychology to understand how social pressure and excessive valuing of early independence and self-sufficiency has resulted in American parents distancing themselves physically from their children Mead, The idea of white supremacy and indeed the modern concept of race itself arose during the process of world conquest by Europeans.

This form of touch, which takes place during a conversation, is intended to make or highlight a point, or to get the client's attention.

Some therapeutic approaches developed out of the European school of existential philosophy.


Holroyd and Brodsky found that approximately one third of psychologists reported using some form of touch with their clients. Participants need to be screened. The following two examples show patients with different defenses, needing different treatment, but with similar underlying issues.

Developmental psychologist, Sharon Heller, writes that what distinguishes a securely attached baby from an insecurely attached baby is "the degree to which each could feel ownership of their mothers' bodies and therefore assurance of protection" Heller, p.

Now I can contact the world around me, or now I can contact memories or expectations. Alyn describes a kind of touch hierarchy in which it is more likely for a person of higher status to touch someone of lower status than the converse.

Five Counseling Theories and Approaches

In this period the practice of psychotherapy was dichotomized between the older, traditional approach of psychoanalytic drive theory and the ideas pioneered largely by Gestalt therapy. We can also look to the practices of parenting in higher touch cultures to appreciate the positive benefits of healthy psychological and emotional development.

Touch has become almost irrelevant.


A more balanced view of touch and its potential benefits and risks is found in surveys of therapists and clients, presented in a series of chapters found in Smith et. America in general is a low touch culture.

This statement is valid for those Gestalt therapists who use the model just discussed and do not emphasize or deal with group dynamics or strive for group cohesiveness. The choice is not between the individual and society, but between organismic and arbitrary regulation.The Department of Psychological Sciences combines the areas of study found in many psychology departments with those typically found in communication sciences departments.

Introduction. Touch is one of the most essential elements of human development, a profound method of communication, a critical component of the health and growth of infants, and a powerful healing force (Bowlby, ; Harlow,; Barnett, ). Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, or three episodes over their life, have to get treated on an ongoing basis to prevent recurrent depression: Counseling and psychotherapy must be adapted to meet the developmental needs of children.

Psychology Courses at Ashford University. Embrace critical thinking and gain knowledge on the path to an online psychology degree with skills that can make you a versatile asset to employers with these undergraduate and graduate level psychology courses.

From the exploration of mental health and disorders, to the impact of psychological principles on modern organizations, these classes will. Russia, too, placed greater emphasis on the biological basis for psychology, beginning with Ivan Sechenov's The definitions of this term are various and may include school psychology and counseling psychology.

Practitioners typically includes people who have graduated from doctoral programs in clinical psychology but may also include.


The Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (The Standard Edition) (Vol. Volume Set) (Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud) 1st Edition.

An analysis of the theoretical basis for psychological counseling
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